24 February 2016
In a break from our irregularly-scheduled programme, I want to write briefly about some important basic security principles for personal computing. Modern computing devices and the cloud have ushered in an amazing era of ubiquitous computing, but also of an increased complexity burden on the individual in managing their access to it all. A series of small bad decisions taken in combination can easily lead to a disaster whereby you lose access to your entire digital life. This happened to someone I follow on Twitter today. Allow me to describe what happened to them and most importantly where they went wrong and how to avoid repeating their mistakes.
The individual concerned sensibly uses 1Password to generate and store strong unique passwords for all the online services they use. I can’t recommend 1Password highly enough, it’s the one piece of software that has had the most impact on improving my digital life since I first started using it two years ago. Our subject syncs their 1Password data between their Mac and iOS device(s) using iCloud and their Apple ID is among the passwords managed by 1Password. Today they used 1Password to generate a new Apple ID password and that’s when things quickly turned very bad for them.
When 1Password generates a new password, it creates a new item for it under its Passwords category, but it also helpfully copies the new password to the clipboard. As a security feature, by default it automatically clears the clipboard after a time period (I think the default is 90 seconds), because you don’t want passwords lingering on the clipboard ready to be accidentally pasted somewhere. Unfortunately our subject didn’t realise that 1Password has this security feature and got locked out of their Apple ID, because the only place their new password existed was on the clipboard which had just been cleared!
They couldn’t get back in to 1Password to retrieve their new Apple ID password because 1Password was set up to use iCloud as its sync engine, which had just stopped working because they’d changed their Apple ID. They couldn’t get in to their Mac because it was configured to use an iCloud login. Apple couldn’t help them recover their password because sensibly they had two-factor authentication turned on, but had opted to store the recovery key in, you guessed it, 1Password. The whole sorry saga is an example of what can happen when you put all your digital eggs in one basket. In this case it was an over-reliance on iCloud.
The takeaway from all this is that you should think carefully about your current security set-up and run through various what if? scenarios to identify where you’ve built up a vulnerable position because of dependency cycles. I did this a while ago and describe my current approach below:
- My 1Password master password, Apple ID password, Dropbox password and Backblaze password were all generated using Diceware (so they’re actually passphrases) and I’ve memorised them. I know the promise of password managers such as 1Password is that you only have to remember one password (the clue’s in the name!), but it’s vital that I be able to gain access to those services without using 1Password. In practice, memorising four passphrases really isn’t so hard
- I regularly practise logging in using the four passphrases above. By necessity I’m entering my 1Password master password every day anyway and regularly get prompted to enter my Apple ID password
- My Apple ID two-factor authentication recovery key is stored in 1Password, but I also carry a hard copy with me
- I use Dropbox for syncing my 1Password data, because unlike iCloud it’s never missed a single beat in the seven years I’ve been using it. That’s how you build a good reputation!
- If I lose access to Dropbox for some reason, I can still retrieve my 1Password data files from my Backblaze online backup as the passphrase to log in is one of the four I’ve memorised
- This one’s less important, but I don’t use iCloud login on my Mac, so if there’s a problem with iCloud I can still use my computer
- I regularly back up my Mac (which includes my 1Password data files from Dropbox) using both Time Machine and SuperDuper!